IELTS作文

发布于 2022-04-18  1980 次阅读


小作文

饼状图

开始段:改写题目,整合所有文字信息。

The pie charts illustrate ...
The pie charts give information about ...

结论段(不写具体数字):呼应题图目的/作用,为各图写结论

... the largest proportion of ...
... is the primary means of ...

细节段一、二(带有具体数字):

  • 独立解释各图
  • 对比各图,指出变化最大的部分

柱状图/表格

开始段:改写题目,整合所有文字信息。

The bar graph compares ...
The bar chart presents data on ... from 1990 to 2010

The table graph explicates the gathered statistics of ...

细节段一、二(带有具体数字):

  • 横轴方向:总结同类型数据的变化趋势
  • 纵轴方向:找出特例/极值
  • 按照pattern分类

折线图

开始段:改写题目,整合所有文字信息。

The line graph depicts ...

结论段(不写具体数字):呼应题图目的/作用,为各折线写最终结论/趋势

细节段一、二(带有具体数字):

  • 独立描述各折线趋势
  • 描述不同折线的相同点/不同点
  • (折线拐点、交点的含义)

地图对比题

开始段:改写题目,整合所有文字信息。

The map outlines the changes that took place ...
The maps depict ...

细节段一、二:

  • 道路扩建/缩减
  • 设施减少/改变/增加

流程图

开始段:改写题目,整合所有文字信息。

The flow chart depicts the procedure of ...

The flow chart illustrates the process of ...

细节段一、二:

  • 过程一/正向流程:
    The manufacturing process mainly comprises eight steps. The first stage is to combine taw materials with manufactured components and then store them in the storage1, after which the production planning2 begins, which is facilitated by the product research and the design. When this stage is accomplished, the next involves assembly3, inspection4 and testing5. Once finished, the products are packaged6 and dispatched7, so as to be available for sales8.
  • 过程二/逆向流程:
    Several steps related to information feedback can be noticed. The first stage involving feedback is the production planning, which gives information to the storage and also is affected by the data of final sales. The sales result also influences the market research, which provides crucial information to the style of package, advertising content and the designing of products. It is also noticeable that the deign of commercials also take the testing results into consideration.

经典例句

People over the age of 85 make up the fastest-growing segment of the population.
85岁以上者成为人口中增长最快的部分。
Women constitute about ten percent of Parliament.
女性在议会中约占10%。
The under-18s constitute nearly 25 percent of the town's population.
18岁以下的人口占该城镇人口的近25%。
The company's profits have shrunk from $5.5 million to $1.25 million.
公司利润从550万美元减少到了125万美元。
The productivity improvements have shrunk our costs by 25 percent.
生产率的提高使我们的成本下降了25%。
The sample of people questioned was drawn from the university's student register and stratified by age and gender.
调查问卷的抽样人群选自大学的学生名单,按年龄和性别分组。

大作文

犯罪类

个人信息泄漏

The first reason for the aggravating sense of insecurity is primarily related to the leakage of personal information on the Internet. Although the popularity of online services, such as online shopping and takeout, has brought about enormous conveniences to people's life, personal information is also straightforward to be accessed by others. For example, a culprit can quickly obtain others' telephone numbers, home addresses, and additional information even without hacker technology, which increases numerous potential risks to people's security.

不安全感加重的第一个原因,主要与互联网上的个人信息泄露有关。虽然网上购物、外卖等网络服务的普及给人们的生活带来了巨大的便利,但个人信息也很容易被他人获取。例如,即使没有黑客技术,犯罪分子也能迅速获得他人的电话号码、家庭住址和其他信息,这给人们的安全增加了许多潜在的风险。

媒体传播焦虑

The second reason people cannot feel safe is that the media easily influence them. Right now we live in the age of misinformation. On the one hand, the state media enables people to quickly access information about various places, both at home and abroad. On the other hand, mass media tend to increase their influence by fomenting discord. As a result, movies and posts may contain many criminal details, violent plots, and other media content that causes social panic.

人们无法感到安全的第二个原因是,媒体很容易影响他们。现在我们生活在一个错误信息的时代。一方面,国家媒体使人们能够迅速获得有关国内外各个地方的信息。另一方面,大众媒体往往通过煽动不和谐来增加其影响力。因此,电影和帖子可能包含许多犯罪细节、暴力情节和其他引起社会恐慌的媒体内容。

失业率高

There are many approaches we can adopt to deter crime. For example, the authorities can increase the strength of the city's police force as an effective deterrent. Another method is to use security cameras in public places to capture the images of criminals. However, some people are not confident in the effectiveness of these measures to combat crime because they believe that the economic slowdown and poverty are the primary causes of crime. Especially during the pandemic, to keep the company alive, a large proportion of the workforce is being made redundant. Because of the high unemployment rate, some jobless people have chosen to commit shoplifting, robberies, fraud, and drug trading.

我们可以采取很多方法来阻止犯罪。例如,当局可以增加城市警察部队的力量,作为一种有效的威慑。另一个方法是在公共场所使用安全摄像机,拍摄罪犯的图像。然而,有些人对这些措施打击犯罪的效果没有信心,因为他们认为经济放缓和贫穷是犯罪的主要原因。特别是在大流行期间,为了保持公司的活力,很大一部分劳动力被裁员。由于失业率高,一些没有工作的人选择了入店行窃、抢劫、欺诈和毒品交易。

教育培训

In my view, education is another solution to crime, although it may take time to see the impact of giving young people more educational opportunities. If they attend school, they will realize that violence, drug trade, and theft are all illegal. Similarly, schools or communities can provide vocational training to help them acquire bookkeeping and culinary skills, opening the door to job possibilities. They would not make money outside laws as long as they could find employment and have a steady source of income.

在我看来,教育是另一个解决犯罪的办法,尽管给年轻人更多的教育机会可能需要时间才能看到其影响。如果他们上学,他们会意识到暴力、毒品交易和偷窃都是非法的。同样,学校或社区可以提供职业培训,帮助他们获得技能,如记账和烹饪技能,这可以打开工作机会的大门。他们不会在法律之外赚钱,只要他们能找到工作,有稳定的收入来源。

工作类

工作的意义

It is undeniable that people spend most of their time working. Even though some may claim that working sometimes deprives people of their time to enjoy life and relax, I hold the opposite view that working remains one of the most significant elements in life.

一个不可否认的事实是,人们大部分时间都在工作。尽管有些人可能声称,工作有时会剥夺人们享受生活和放松的时间,但我个人持相反观点,认为工作仍然是生活中最有意义的元素之一。

To start with, money, which is the most direct outcome of work, guarantees a healthy and decent life. Generally speaking, the richer one person is, the better his life quality would be. The way people live, ranging from daily eating and accommodation to the form of relaxation, is closely associated with their earnings. When one struggles with basic needs, he may be too parsimonious to heat the house properly and even have a problem maintaining physical well-being, not to mention other higher demands like traveling abroad.

首先,金钱是工作的最直接成果,它保证了健康和体面的生活。一般来说,一个人越有钱,他的生活质量就越好。人们的生活方式,从日常饮食和住宿到放松的形式,都与他们的收入密切相关。当一个人在基本需求上挣扎时,他可能会因为吝啬而无法正常取暖,甚至在维持身体健康方面也有问题,更不用说其他更高的要求,如出国旅游。

Furthermore, a successful career means sufficient financial support and spiritual fulfillment. Specifically, people who can become experts would typically engage in fields that match their strengths and personalities. This tends to bring a sense of engagement and achievement instead of the superficial happiness of hedonism. In other words, for successful people, working is not only a way of earning money but also a way of self-actualization.

此外,成功的事业意味着足够的经济支持和精神上的满足。具体来说,能够成为专家的人通常会从事与他们的优势和个性相匹配的领域。这往往会带来一种参与感和成就感,而不是享乐主义的肤浅快乐。换句话说,对于成功人士来说,工作不仅是一种赚钱的方式,也是一种自我实现的方式。

加班

From my perspective, the crux that the majority fail to handle the relationship between companies and families is financial pressure. Living in a consumer society, many individuals are inundated with many tasks, most of which are inextricably bound up with the money, whether mortgages, private cars, medical insurance, or tuition fees for children. Only by pushing themselves to be workaholics can they earn more money to pay all their bills.

在我看来,大多数人没能处理好公司和家庭之间的关系的症结在于经济压力。生活在消费社会中,许多人被许多任务所淹没,其中大部分都与金钱密不可分,无论是房贷、私家车、医疗保险,还是孩子的学费。只有把自己逼成工作狂,才能赚更多的钱来支付所有的账单。

Working adults often have grueling work. Fortunately, some countries have introduced more stringent laws against exploitation, prohibiting compulsory long working hours. For example, the Portuguese parliament has passed a new labor law making it illegal for employers to contact their employees when they are off the clock. Another option is for the government to initiate a tax reduction policy for those living on a tight budget. Therefore, they don't have to subordinate personal lives to careers and can spare some time for their families.

工作的成年人往往有艰苦的工作。幸运的是,一些国家已经出台了更严格的反剥削法律,禁止强制性的长时间工作。例如,葡萄牙议会通过了一项新的劳动法,规定雇主在员工下班后与他们联系是非法的。另一个选择是,政府为那些预算紧张的人启动减税政策。因此,他们不必让个人生活服从于事业,可以抽出一些时间给家人。

在家办公

Working from home has its benefits. There’s no commuting, which means you can sleep longer. There are no mask mandates at home, so you don't have to wear a mask all day long. People can make themselves as comfortable as possible when working from home and can even work in bed.

在家工作有其好处。没有通勤,这意味着你可以睡更长时间。在家没有口罩的规定,所以你不必整天戴着口罩。在家工作时,人们可以让自己尽可能地舒适,甚至可以在床上工作。

It is argued that studying and working from home are more productive as there are no minor disturbances in the classroom or workplace buzz, which is supposed to allow for more concentration on research and work. However, the truth is instead the opposite. Procrastination is often shared by most people since individual learning and working require constancy, discipline, and responsibility. The lack of supervision or simply being at home for so long makes people tend to lie in bed, surf social networks, or take a nap, which inevitably results in slow progress and poor performance.

有人认为,在家里学习和工作更有成效,因为没有教室或工作场所的小干扰,这应该是让人更专注于研究和工作。然而,事实却恰恰相反。拖延症往往是大多数人都有的,因为个人学习和工作需要恒心、纪律和责任。缺乏监督或仅仅是长时间呆在家里,使人们倾向于躺在床上,浏览社交网络,或打盹,这不可避免地导致进展缓慢和表现不佳。

Besides, isolation and loneliness are constantly hitting those who study or work at home, unlike school and the workplace, which provide a location where people can meet, make friends, and exchange ideas. Consequently, the less they get involved with others, the less creative and resourceful they will become. Worse still, students who receive education at home do not have a teacher around to provide guidance or answer questions. Employees who work from home cannot contact their colleagues for assistance and help.

此外,孤独和寂寞不断冲击着那些在家里学习或工作的人,不像学校和工作场所那样,提供一个人们可以见面、交朋友和交流思想的场所。因此,他们越是不与他人交往,就越是缺乏创造力和智慧。更糟糕的是,在家里接受教育的学生没有老师在身边提供指导或回答问题。在家工作的员工无法与同事联系,以寻求协助和帮助。

年轻人

Admittedly, the ability to pursue careers may relate to the financial situation as some career paths require special schooling and qualifications, which are sometimes expensive. Furthermore, youths should consider if the career path they choose will provide them with a stable and adequate financial source, namely, whether the take-home salary will support themselves or their family or cover their health insurance and retirement options.

诚然,从事职业的能力可能与经济状况有关,因为有些职业道路需要特殊的学校教育和资格,而这些有时是昂贵的。此外,青年应该考虑他们所选择的职业道路是否能够为他们提供稳定和充足的经济来源,即实得工资是否能够养活自己或家人,或支付他们的医疗保险和退休选择。

Young leaders, especially those employed in high-technology companies, can easily keep pace with the rapidly changing market. Admittedly, compared with senior employees, they do lack experience of the past, but facing this fast-shifting market, their inadequate experience can be in turn seen as an advantage, as being coeval with targeting customers, they can understand the current tendency and are less likely to be hamstrung by empiricism. Therefore, they can absorb the latest information and adapt to meet the demand. Besides, young people have much time and ambition to be leaders. As most young people have not been married and formed their families, they can devote themselves to their work and maximize their output, which is impossible for older people.

年轻的领导者,尤其是那些受雇于高科技公司的领导者,可以很容易地跟上快速变化的市场步伐。诚然,与资深员工相比,他们确实缺乏过去的经验,但面对这个快速变化的市场,他们的经验不足反过来可以被视为一种优势,因为与目标客户共生,他们可以了解当前的趋势,不太可能被经验主义所束缚。因此,他们可以吸收最新的信息,并调整以满足需求。此外,年轻人有很多时间和野心成为领导者。由于大多数年轻人还没有结婚和组建家庭,他们可以全身心地投入工作,最大限度地提高产出,而这对老年人来说是不可能的。

Undeniably, when facing an emergency or a dilemma, compared with the aged leaders, the young generation tend to be less responsible, resulting in impulsive decisions due to their immaturity. Consequently, organizations might be at risk. However, young candidates who have the potential to be managers can have the capability to deal with diverse situations after professional training.

不可否认的是,在面对紧急情况或困境时,与年长的领导人相比,年轻一代往往不太负责任,由于他们的不成熟而导致冲动的决定。因此,组织可能会面临风险。然而,有潜力成为管理者的年轻候选人在经过专业培训后,可以有能力处理各种情况。

换工作

Many young people frequently change their jobs to advance their careers or make more money. This may bring more opportunities and a higher income, although sometimes it prevents them from developing expertise.

许多年轻人经常更换工作,以促进他们的职业生涯或赚取更多的钱。这可能会带来更多的机会和更高的收入,尽管有时会妨碍他们发展专业知识。

Possessing many skills is essential in the modern world, where the competition is fierce and the business environment is volatile. Young people who have ambitions and intend to expand their skills also switch jobs from time to time.

在竞争激烈、商业环境不稳定的现代社会,拥有多种技能是必不可少的。有雄心壮志并打算扩大自己技能的年轻人也会不时地转换工作。

Those who change jobs frequently cannot develop expertise and earn a high income. Companies would not recruit them since these job applicants may not have a well-defined career path. Their knowledge of each job may be still only rudimentary. It is also difficult for these people to understand the logic behind their daily work or improve their ability on the right track.

那些频繁更换工作的人无法发展专业知识并获得高收入。公司不会招聘他们,因为这些求职者可能没有一个明确的职业道路。他们对每项工作的了解可能还只是粗浅的。这些人也很难理解日常工作背后的逻辑,或在正确的轨道上提高自己的能力。

I would see the work gratification as a subjective perception that is correlated with various determinants, for example, extrinsic motivating factors or personal attitudes towards what is the happiness of work. Often, the ongoing business trends require working adults to change their career paths to a new direction that might be more aligned with the industry's prospects. At an individual level, some people obtain a sense of achievement by embracing new challenges and opportunities in new domains.

我会把工作满足感看作是一种主观感知,与各种决定因素相关,例如,外在的激励因素或个人对什么是工作幸福的态度。通常情况下,正在进行的商业趋势要求工作的成年人改变他们的职业道路,转向可能更符合他们前景的新方向。在个人层面上,有些人通过接受新领域的新挑战和新机会获得成就感。

面试

From their perspective, a few minutes of communication is far from enough for employers to recognize the candidate's background fully – whether it be their expertise or other features like a sense of cooperation and team spirit. In fact, the final job offer does not descend solely from the interview. The scrutiny for an appropriate candidate includes aspects from evaluating educational background to investigating their former working experience.

从他们的角度来看,几分钟的沟通远远不足以让雇主充分认识到候选人的背景--无论是他们的专业知识还是其他特征,如合作意识和团队精神。事实上,最终的工作机会并不完全来自于面试。对一个合适的候选人的审查包括从评估教育背景到调查他们以前的工作经验等方面。

Which approach can be deemed more effective in evaluating job applicants is an amorphous notion that varies with discrete requirements of different positions. For some scientific research-based work, it does make sense that candidates' academic performance or research achievements are more persuasive than a 20-minute interview. But for positions like customer service or sales representative, which emphasize more appearance and interpersonal skills, face-to-face communication wins the heart of employers.

在评估求职者时,哪种方法更有效是一个无定形的概念,它随着不同职位的具体要求而变化。对于一些以科学研究为基础的工作,候选人的学术表现或研究成就比20分钟的面试更有说服力,这确实有道理。但对于像客户服务或销售代表这样更强调外表和人际交往能力的职位,面对面的交流会赢得雇主的青睐。

教育类

父母的影响

Researches prove that children’s foundational understanding of intelligence and emotion is formed before they even start explicitly learning a curriculum. It is the environment created by the parents that could slow down or facilitate a child’s sensory, motor, emotional, and linguistic development. This is not only because children are prone to model everything a parent does and incorporate what they see into their own lives. Also, the home education system adopted by the parents and the level of support given to their children will directly affect their children’s intelligence development and problem-solving ability. Therefore, parents must take advice and training on behaving in front of their children and guarantee a formal, structured environment for children to stretch and grow.

研究证明,儿童对智力和情感的基础性理解在他们开始明确学习课程之前就已经形成。正是父母创造的环境可以减缓或促进孩子的感官、运动、情感和语言的发展。这不仅是因为孩子们容易模仿父母的一切行为,并将他们看到的东西融入自己的生活。而且,父母采取的家庭教育制度和对孩子的支持程度也会直接影响孩子的智力发展和解决问题的能力。因此,父母必须接受关于在孩子面前表现的建议和培训,并保证为孩子提供一个正规的、有组织的环境,让他们伸展和成长。

学校方

Significant though the home education is, that of professional educators eclipses the influence of parents in education as children grow. One primary reason contributing to the change is the exclusive proficiency in academic knowledge of teachers, who seems to be eligible to answer all students' questions, making it easy to win those young minds full of curiosity. So is the case with social ability. In conclusion, although the impacts of parenting cannot be ignored, it seems that teachers have a more critical role in developing intellectual and interpersonal qualities for the next generation.

尽管家庭教育很重要,但随着孩子们的成长,专业教育者的教育影响力已经超越了父母。导致这种变化的一个主要原因是教师对学术知识的独家精通,他们似乎有资格回答所有学生的问题,因此很容易赢得那些充满好奇心的年轻心灵。社会能力的情况也是如此。总之,尽管父母的影响不容忽视,但在培养下一代的智力和人际关系素质方面,教师似乎有更关键的作用。

成长类

入学

From the perspective of many parents, early school education is conducive to realizing their expectations for the next generation. Parents usually worry about potential challenges their children will face, such as the burden of study, peer pressure, etc. Additionally, it is said that young children can better acquire some knowledge. As an example, the linguistic ability is reckoned to be better gained before establishing self-consciousness. Furthermore, early schooling also benefits working parents. With their children being taken care of, adults can allocate more time and effort to their careers, which is particularly important for families living on a tight budget.

从许多家长的角度来看,早期学校教育有利于实现他们对下一代的期望。家长们通常会担心他们的孩子将面临的潜在挑战,如学习负担、同龄人压力等。此外,据说幼儿可以更好地掌握一些知识。例如,在建立自我意识之前,语言能力被认为可以更好地获得。此外,早期学校教育也有利于工作的父母。由于孩子得到了照顾,成年人可以将更多的时间和精力分配给他们的事业,这对预算紧张的家庭尤为重要。

Parents may be oblivious to the feeling of young children and even pay scant attention to the their needs, who are not mentally prepared for a new environment and need more accompany from family members than teachers in their preschool years. Another fact we cannot ignore is physical maturity. Scientific evidence has shown that the human brain has not fully developed to accept advanced skills until the age of seven, which explains why it is legalized as the starting year for primary school in most countries.

家长可能对幼儿的感受视而不见,甚至对他们的需求不闻不问,他们对新环境的心理准备不足,在学龄前阶段更需要家庭成员的陪伴,而不是老师。另一个我们不能忽视的事实是身体的成熟度。科学证据表明,人类的大脑在7岁之前还没有完全发育到可以接受高级技能的程度,这也解释了为什么在大多数国家,7岁被法定为小学的起始年。

The policy has failed to be practical because it just has fixed the minimum age of students but does not involve the education modes or other related standards at the same time. Rules could undoubtedly be different if the first-step education in a country is relatively easy even if the students are much younger; sometimes, the limitation must be more rigorous when children are taught more difficult knowledge.

该政策未能切实可行,因为它只是确定了学生的最低年龄,但没有同时涉及教育模式或其他相关标准。如果一个国家的第一步教育相对容易,即使学生年龄小得多,规则无疑可以不同;有时,当儿童被教导更难的知识时,限制必须更严格。

压力

Children face considerably more pressure to achieve results at school and university. Parents don't want their children going to mediocre schools. The competition for places at elite education institutions is growing more intense, and the current glut of graduates means that many of them will not be able to find jobs. With so much pressure, it is not uncommon for young people to suffer mental issues. Nonetheless, this pressure may be necessary in an increasingly competitive world economy. For young people to be fully equipped for the challenges they will face in their work and life, they must be adequately prepared at school and university.

孩子们在学校和大学面临着相当大的压力,需要取得成绩。家长不想让自己的孩子去上普普通通的学校,对精英教育机构名额的竞争越来越激烈,而目前毕业生过剩意味着他们中的许多人将无法找到工作。在如此大的压力下,年轻人出现精神问题并不罕见。尽管如此,在竞争日益激烈的世界经济中,这种压力可能是必要的。为了使年轻人能够充分应对他们在工作和生活中面临的挑战,他们必须在学校和大学里做好充分的准备。

Despite the necessity of preparing children for the difficulties ahead, it is also essential that attention be paid to young students' emotional and mental well-being. The increased pressure imposed on students, alongside the intensive competition among the young, is in danger of having a harmful, long-term effect on the lives of the individuals and having broader drawbacks for society as a whole.

尽管有必要让孩子们为未来的困难做好准备,但关注青年学生的情感和精神健康也是至关重要的。强加在学生身上的压力以及年轻人之间的激烈竞争,有可能对个人的生活产生有害的长期影响,并对整个社会产生更广泛的弊端。

The burden on children encompasses academic and social pressures. Firstly, there is no denying that high-quality educational resources are relatively limited, which aggravates academic competition. High expectations from parents also encourage children to suffer from increasing study pressure. In terms of social stress, the fierce peer competitions among classmates are likely to result in hypocrisy and end up causing broken friendships. Besides, to some extent, the Internet exaggerates stress because it tends to disseminate elitism.

儿童的负担包含了学业和社会压力。首先,不可否认的是,优质教育资源相对有限,这加剧了学术竞争。父母的高期望值也促使儿童遭受越来越大的学习压力。在社会压力方面,同学之间激烈的竞争很可能导致虚伪,最终导致友谊破裂。此外,在某种程度上,互联网夸大了压力,因为它倾向于传播精英主义。

努力

A long-time study has unfavorable influences on children’s health and social skills. Those who are busy with Mathematics or Chemistry would lack time to play basketball or football on the playground, which may lead to a sedentary lifestyle. This is why some primary students suffer from obesity and poor eyesight. In terms of social skills, when children must listen to teachers, do homework, and have tests frequently, they have few opportunities to communicate with other people except their teachers and classmates. In the long run, their interpersonal skills will not be improved.

长时间的学习对儿童的健康和社会技能有不利的影响。那些忙于数学或化学的学生会缺乏时间在操场上打篮球或踢足球,这可能导致久坐不动的生活方式。这就是为什么一些小学生患有肥胖症和视力不佳。在社会技能方面,当孩子们必须听老师讲课、做作业、经常考试时,除了老师和同学,他们很少有机会与其他人交流。从长远来看,他们的人际交往能力将不会得到改善。

Also, the diversity of the whole society will be limited. Excessive pressure is inimical to creative expression. 8 to 13 is the age to discover and explore the world. But when they spend their leisure time sitting in front of the desk and focusing on textbooks rather than being exposed to nature, they will not have time to find the beautiful aspects of the world. Thus, in the future, there might be more 'nerds', who just have a good command of what books and teachers told them, and fewer creators. We should be encouraging new ideas, not stifling them.

同时,整个社会的多样性也将受到限制。过度的压力不利于表现创造力。8至13岁是发现和探索世界的年龄。但是,当他们把闲暇时间坐在书桌前,专注于教科书,而不是接触大自然时,他们就没有时间去发现世界的美好一面。因此,在未来,可能会有更多的 "书呆子",他们只是很好地掌握了书本和老师告诉他们的东西,而创造者则会减少。我们应该鼓励创意,而不是将其扼杀。

父母的教育方式

On the materialistic level, this permissive rearing style is certainly understandable –children who have all their requirements met and are allowed to do whatever they like can fully enjoy the warmth from parents and are more likely to cultivate a stronger self-esteem. Nevertheless, from a more comprehensive perspective, the materialistic satisfaction mentioned above can be considered from an opposite angle: the overindulgence will inevitably lead to many character flaws, say, the lack of self-discipline, the incapability of behavior control, and over reliance on parents, all of which will exert detrimental effects on their later life.

在世俗的层面上,这种放任的养育方式无疑是可以理解的--孩子们如果所有的要求都得到满足,被允许做他们喜欢的事情,就可以充分享受父母的温暖,更有可能培养出更强的自尊心。然而,从一个更全面的角度来看,上述的物质满足可以从一个相反的角度来考虑:过度放纵将不可避免地导致许多性格上的缺陷,例如,缺乏自律,没有能力控制行为,以及过度依赖父母,所有这些都会对他们以后的生活产生不利的影响。

Supervisors may surprise because the kids are incredibly focused and motivated when they have a chance to opt for subjects or interests they truly like in their schooling and daily lives. They may implement a wide range of experiments and access multiple books and profiles, most of which are just derived from the enthusiasms rooted in their minds. Children may be led to comparatively optimistic life attitudes and pleasant childhoods when they have the right to struggle for what they are obsessed with.

监管人员可能会感到惊讶,因为当孩子们有机会选择他们在学校教育和日常生活中真正喜欢的科目或兴趣时,他们会非常专注和有动力。他们可能会实施广泛的实验,查阅多种书籍和资料,其中大部分只是源于扎根于他们头脑中的热情。当儿童有权利为他们所迷恋的东西而奋斗时,他们可能被引导到相对乐观的生活态度和愉快的童年。

But they are not mature enough to distinguish what is proper in their age ranges. They may imitate what they learn from the mass media or their surroundings, such as smoking, drinking, and bullying, provoking severely negative consequences. Their freedom should be rationally manipulated.

但他们还不够成熟,不能区分什么是他们年龄范围内的正确行为。他们可能会模仿从大众媒体或周围环境中学到的东西,如吸烟、喝酒和欺凌,引发严重的负面后果。他们的自由应该得到合理的操纵。

科技类

交流方式

While technology creates elaborate social networks online, it still undermines people's social abilities and causes social isolation. People increasingly rely on typed words and stickers, and their emotional sensitivity decreases because expressions in the avatar cannot be captured like face-to-face communication behind the screen. With in-person contact increasingly being replaced by online communication, solid social connections will be inevitably replaced by much shallower junctions, leading to situations where people may have large numbers of internet friends but few actual real-world companions. This can lead to depression and feelings of loneliness.

虽然技术在网上创造了精心设计的社交网络,但它仍然破坏了人们的社交能力,导致社会隔离。人们越来越依赖打字和贴纸,他们的情感敏感度下降,因为头像中的表情无法像屏幕后面的面对面交流那样被捕捉到。随着亲自接触越来越多地被在线交流所取代,牢固的社会关系将不可避免地被更浅的连接所取代,导致人们可能有大量的网络朋友,但很少有实际的现实世界的同伴。这可能导致抑郁症和孤独感。

Some advanced means of communication have considerably facilitated communication among people. For example, people used to write letters in the past, which usually arrived at distant destinations after several months. But now, we can talk to our friends instantly through video-chatting or social networking websites, which is much more convenient than ever before. Besides, this new technology also brings people closer despite the separation due to the pursuit of career advancement, further education, and other personal ambitions. The prosperity of social networking websites, blogging, and discussion forums have witnessed a boom in interaction among friends, relatives, and strangers. People are never estranged from their beloved ones through the comments and dialogues following the pictures and videos on these platforms despite the geographical barriers.

一些先进的通信手段极大地促进了人们之间的交流。例如,过去人们经常写信,这些信通常在几个月后到达遥远的目的地。但现在,我们可以通过视频聊天或社交网站与朋友即时交谈,这比以前方便多了。此外,这种新技术还拉近了人们之间的距离,尽管由于追求职业发展、进一步教育和其他个人抱负而导致分离。社交网站、博客和论坛的繁荣,见证了朋友、亲戚和陌生人之间互动的繁荣。尽管有地理上的障碍,人们通过这些平台上的图片和视频的评论和对话,与他们心爱的人永远不会疏远。

机械自动化

People in the past could never imagine that they may no longer suffer from hard physical work but only manipulate computers. However, the development also raises the issue that practitioners from a wide range of professions may encounter the problem of unemployment. Machines also prove that the growth of the related productivity would be exponential: compared with hundreds of physical laborers in the past, devices only need a limited number of operators and never need a rest, nor do they require a paid holiday off. Besides, the initial investment in purchasing machinery and maintenance is decreasing due to the development of technologies, which exaggerates mass worry about unemployment.

过去的人们永远无法想象,他们可能不再遭受艰苦的体力劳动,而只是操纵计算机。然而,这一发展也提出了一个问题,即来自各行各业的从业人员可能会遇到失业问题。机器也证明了相关生产力的增长将是指数级的:与过去成百上千的体力劳动者相比,设备只需要有限的操作人员,永远不需要休息,也不需要带薪休假。此外,由于技术的发展,购买机器和维护的初始投资正在减少,这夸大了大众对失业的担忧。

Most manual workers deeply know that they cannot live like this forever because their physical conditions may worsen with aging. Additionally, machines can become a substitute for those doing dangerous jobs like mining underground or searching for lives in ruins; otherwise, potential disasters may happen to humans. The scenario also provides new opportunities for developers, operators, and logistics.

大多数体力劳动者深深知道,他们不可能永远这样生活下去,因为他们的身体状况可能会随着年龄增长而恶化。此外,机器可以成为那些从事危险工作的人的替代品,如在地下采矿或在废墟中寻找生命;否则,潜在的灾难可能发生在人类身上。这种情况也为开发商、运营商和物流提供了新的机会。

A nation's cultures, customs, and values are inextricably bound up with its traditional artifacts. With artistic handicrafts being replaced by products from assembly lines, the diversity and richness in cultures will vanish.

一个国家的文化、习俗和价值观与它的传统手工艺品密不可分。随着艺术手工艺品被流水线上的产品所取代,文化的多样性和丰富性将消失殆尽。

核电站

In raw materials, nuclear power can be considered an ideal choice to replace thermal energy. On the one hand, despite the high investment in constructing atomic plants, the average life span of nuclear power is approximately 20 years longer than the general thermal power station. Meanwhile, the efficiency of generating electricity is also much higher. On the other hand, nuclear power has less constrained conditions than alternative fuels such as hydro power, wind, and solar power. Therefore, the utilization of nuclear can guarantee a sustainable and stable supply of energy regardless of the weather or geographical situation.

在原材料方面,核电可以说是取代火力能源的理想选择。一方面,尽管建设核电站的投资很高,但核电的平均寿命比一般火力发电站长约20年。同时,发电的效率也高得多。另一方面,与水力发电、风力发电和太阳能发电等替代燃料相比,核电的限制条件较少。因此,无论天气或地理状况如何,核电的利用可以保证可持续和稳定的能源供应。

Besides, nuclear power can be regarded as an environmentally friendly energy source. In other words, while generating electricity, the carbon emissions will not be emitted, which would have been enormous due to burning fossil fuels in thermal power stations. Besides, coal power stations also release sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. Therefore, nuclear power helps alleviate global warming and the contamination of the atmosphere.

此外,核电可以被视为一种环境友好型能源。换句话说,在发电的同时,不会排放出碳,而在火力发电站燃烧化石燃料会产生巨大的碳排放。此外,煤电站也会向大气中释放二氧化硫。因此,核电有助于缓解全球变暖和大气层的污染。

食品技术

The development of food technology can benefit many people's health who are provided with a broader range of high-quality foods for a balanced diet. For example, some perishables such as fruit and vegetables can be preserved and made available for people in cold climates. Some diet supplements have also been developed to improve the nutrition of our diet and promote our well-being.

食品技术的发展可以使许多人的健康受益,他们可以得到更广泛的高质量食品以获得平衡的饮食。例如,一些易腐烂的食物,如水果和蔬菜,可以被保存起来,供寒冷气候下的人们使用。一些饮食补充剂也被开发出来,以改善我们饮食的营养,促进我们的健康。

Genetic engineering, for instance, modifies the genetic characteristics of natural crops, but the consequence of eating these crops is yet to be known. In addition, some chemicals have been used to increase the shelf life of some foodstuffs, even though these chemicals can harm our health.

例如,基因工程改变了天然农作物的遗传特征,但食用这些农作物的后果尚不清楚。此外,一些化学品被用来增加一些食品的保质期,尽管这些化学品会损害我们的健康。

科学实验

Some people regard scientific research as a waste of time and money because they probably see several reports about the failures of scientific experiments. Admittedly, due to the limitation of current technology or funding, some short-term scientific research may seem to have no clear objectives or direct rewards, which makes it seem like a kind of “waste” to those critics, but stopping such experiments would have worse consequences.

有些人认为科学研究是浪费时间和金钱,因为他们可能看到了一些关于科学实验失败的报告。诚然,由于目前技术或资金的限制,一些短期的科学研究似乎没有明确的目标或直接的回报,这使得它在那些批评者看来是一种 "浪费",但停止这样的实验会有更糟糕的后果。

Additionally, these people misunderstand the essence of scientific experiments; scientific theories are falsifiable and can be supplanted by new theories after trying hundreds or thousands of times. Therefore, "failure" is allowed, and it is expected that later generations do not understand the investment and even sacrifice for the previous theory. Still, these initial investments provide the basis for the subsequent innovation.

此外,这些人误解了科学实验的本质;科学理论是可以被证伪的,在尝试了数百次或数千次之后,可以被新的理论所取代。因此,"失败 "是被允许的,估计后人也不理解为以前的理论所做的投资甚至牺牲。不过,这些最初的投资还是为后来的创新提供了基础。

国际类

国际慈善

Charity aims to alleviate the suffering regardless of frontiers. After all, human misery knows no borders, nor should charity. The optimal charity model is at a national or even global level, whereby the money can go to the neediest people, particularly those suffering from famine, deprivation, or wars. Meanwhile, many multi-national charitable organizations, with branches in every corner of the world and accrued experience, make it possible for a national and global charity.

慈善的目的是不分国界地减轻人们的痛苦。毕竟,人类的苦难不分国界,慈善事业也不应该分国界。最佳的慈善模式是在国家甚至全球范围内,据此,资金可以流向最需要的人,特别是那些遭受饥荒、匮乏或战争的人。同时,许多跨国慈善组织,在世界各个角落都有分支机构,并积累了丰富的经验,使国家和全球的慈善机构成为可能。

国际援助

On the one hand, the world's wealthier countries should take concerted action to help the poorer countries under ethical considerations. When people lack the resources needed to survive, those with abundant resources are obligated to come to their aid. Minor financial sacrifices of wealthy nations can prevent massive amounts of death from starvation. On the other hand, foreign aid should be deployed more wisely. The current aid money to poor areas is often abused. Instead of being sensibly allocated, the aid money often results in authority corruption and military expenses. Thus it is essential to apply foreign aid more appropriately.

一方面,世界上较富裕的国家应该在道德的考虑下采取一致行动来帮助较贫穷的国家。当人们缺乏生存所需的资源时,那些拥有丰富资源的国家就有义务来帮助他们。富裕国家的小规模财政牺牲可以防止大量的人死于饥饿。另一方面,外国援助应该被更明智地部署。目前对贫困地区的援助资金经常被滥用。援助资金没有得到合理的分配,而是经常导致当局腐败和军事开支。因此,必须更恰当地应用外国援助。

Firstly, aid should be deployed in infrastructure and technology to ameliorate living standards. Over the last several decades, China has been pumping resources into Africa, ranging from transportation and infrastructure to real estate, to help Africa modernize its economies. Secondly, aid should also contribute to science and education. It seems axiomatic that everyone would benefit from a better scientific education. Granting everyone a chance to approach knowledge can create a well-educated workforce and ensure people get rid of poverty.

首先,援助应该部署在基础设施和技术方面,以提高生活水平。在过去几十年里,中国一直在向非洲注入资源,从交通和基础设施到房地产,以帮助非洲实现经济现代化。第二,援助也应有助于科学和教育。不言而喻,每个人都会从更好的科学教育中受益。给予每个人接近知识的机会可以创造一个受过良好教育的劳动力,确保人们摆脱贫困。

跨国公司

Admittedly, globalization creates a more conducive environment for investors to conduct business worldwide. Under such circumstances, many enterprises invest their capital and locate their manufacturing units in developing countries, where the labor force is cheaper. Multinational companies in those countries hire a vast number of the local population, creating work opportunities locally.

无可否认,全球化为投资者在全球范围内开展业务创造了更有利的环境。在这种情况下,许多企业将资本投向发展中国家,并将其生产单位设在发展中国家,因为那里的劳动力更便宜。这些国家的跨国公司雇用了大量的当地居民,在当地创造了工作机会。

When multinational corporations enter the domestic market of less developed countries, local companies will inevitably face colossal threats. With their vast resources and competitive strength, those transnational enterprises can quickly take over control of the market and weed out their competing counterparts, especially tiny and medium enterprises. Worse still, the wealth is usually not shared with the local community, resulting in large capital outflows from the host country.

当跨国公司进入欠发达国家的国内市场,当地公司将不可避免地面临巨大的威胁。凭借其庞大的资源和竞争实力,这些跨国企业可以迅速接管市场的控制权,并淘汰其竞争的同行,特别是中小型企业。更糟糕的是,这些财富通常不与当地社区分享,导致东道国的大量资本外流。

命运共同体

First of all, human society is now an intimate community in whose future we all have a stake. Pandemic and pollution know no borders. The global warming, terrorism, and the hunger of children are the foes of every nation. A virus in one area may spread to every corner of the world overnight without adequate control. No one is immune to the cross-border crisis, not even the most developed countries. We have become an integral whole with a common destiny. We stand together in weal or woe, as we have shared interests and future. Hence, we should provide aid within the capacity.

首先,人类社会现在是一个亲密的社区,它的未来与我们所有人都有关系。大流行病和污染不分国界。全球变暖、恐怖主义和儿童的饥饿是每个国家的敌人。一个地区的病毒可能在一夜之间扩散到世界的每一个角落,而没有得到充分的控制。没有人能够幸免于跨界危机,即使是最发达的国家也不例外。我们已经成为一个具有共同命运的整体。无论祸福,我们都站在一起,因为我们有共同的利益和未来。因此,我们应该在能力范围内提供援助。

人口过剩

On the one hand, it is understandable why many people see population growth as the answer to many problems. In metropolitan cities, tons of waste, whether packages of products, plastic bags, defective or outdated electronic devices result in enormous environmental pollution; most non-biodegradable will stay in the landfills for hundreds of years. Another problem that affects every urban citizen is traffic congestion, which is an inevitable problem attributed to the high density of the population.

一方面,可以理解为什么许多人将人口增长视为许多问题的答案。在大都市,成吨的垃圾,无论是产品包装、塑料袋、有缺陷或过时的电子设备,都会造成巨大的环境污染;大多数不可生物降解的垃圾会在垃圾填埋场停留数百年之久。另一个影响每个城市公民的问题是交通拥堵,这是一个不可避免的问题,归因于人口的高密度。

On the other hand, even in over-populated countries, the government faces a deficiency in the workforce and an aging society. The increasing population should not be reckoned as the only culprit for all problems; there may be other inherent factors. For example, there has been a mass exodus of workers from the villages to the towns because the youth are being enticed away by higher salaries and more education and medical care opportunities. The resulting unreasonable population distribution usually brings an imbalance of development and resources between the urban and the rural area.

另一方面,即使在人口过多的国家,政府也面临着劳动力不足和社会老龄化的问题。不应该把人口的增加算作所有问题的唯一罪魁祸首;可能还有其他内在因素。例如,由于年轻人被更高的工资和更多的教育和医疗机会所吸引,大量工人从乡村流向城镇。由此产生的不合理的人口分布通常会带来城市和农村之间发展和资源的不平衡。

社会类

延迟退休

From the individual level, delaying retirement is also a reasonable and suitable measure for the current society. With the enhancement of living standards and medical advances, the average life expectancy of the population has generally extended in recent years, which means that people aged 55-60 are usually in good health and can still take full-time occupations. At the same time, middle-aged people nowadays face enormous economic pressure, including mortgages, bills, tuition fees, and other expenses. Continuing to engage in a relatively high-income full-time job can relieve the stress of daily life.

从个人层面来看,延迟退休也是当前社会的一个合理、合适的措施。随着生活水平的提高和医学的进步,近年来人口的平均寿命普遍延长,这意味着55-60岁的人通常健康状况良好,仍可从事全职工作。同时,现在的中年人面临着巨大的经济压力,包括房贷、账单、学费和其他开支。继续从事相对高收入的全职工作可以缓解日常生活中的压力

A dynamic multigenerational workforce is more likely to output more. A wide age range of employees naturally goes with more diverse skill sets and viewpoints, which can sometimes be complementary to form a virtuous circle under proper guidance. The employer can take full advantage of their respective strengths of distinct age groups.

一支充满活力的多代员工队伍更有可能产出更多。年龄跨度大的员工自然会有更多不同的技能和观点,在适当的指导下,有时可以互补,形成一个良性循环。雇主可以充分利用不同年龄组的各自优势。

小家庭&大家庭

Merits emerge when one chooses small families, especially in the modern urban life, where people increasingly lack time and energy to maintain a traditional and relatively stable living. Small families enjoy more freedom than the great family groups; they design and arrange their family livings dynamically based on their purposes without caring about other close relatives. Therefore, people in small families can use their energy and time more reasonably for their careers or studies in today’s city.

当人们选择小家庭时,就会出现一些优点,特别是在现代城市生活中,人们越来越缺乏时间和精力来维持传统和相对稳定的生活。小家庭比大家庭享有更多的自由;他们根据自己的目的动态地设计和安排自己的家庭生活,而不关心其他近亲。因此,在今天的城市里,小家庭的人可以更合理地利用他们的精力和时间来从事他们的事业或学习。

Situations sometimes go adversely if one doesn’t have well-rounded abilities to manage the real-life details and suffer from financial burdens. Small families need to acquire more capabilities to face problems and undertake more ventures when there are only restricted members within a domestic environment. Additionally, disorders are more likely to happen in case of an emergency because no additional one would help deal with issues overwhelming the whole family.

如果一个人没有全面的能力来管理现实生活中的细节,并遭受经济负担,情况有时会变得很糟糕。当家庭环境中只有有限的成员时,小家庭需要获得更多的能力来面对问题和进行更多的冒险。此外,在紧急情况下更容易发生紊乱,因为没有额外的人帮助处理压倒整个家庭的问题。

独居

The first main factor is the pursuit of freedom and privacy. Young adults, nowadays, prefer an independent lifestyle than ever before. In other words, they are not willing to be restricted by family bonds or marriage. Therefore, a solitary lifestyle satisfies their needs and becomes their favorable choice. Another reason contributing to this issue is that some young people choose metropolitans as their employment destinations, which means they have to be separated from their parents and live by themselves.

第一个主要因素是对自由和隐私的追求。现在的年轻人,比以前更喜欢独立的生活方式。换句话说,他们不愿意受到家庭关系或婚姻的限制。因此,孤独的生活方式满足了他们的需求,成为他们的有利选择。造成这一问题的另一个原因是,一些年轻人选择大都市作为他们的就业目的地,这意味着他们必须与父母分开,自己生活。

Although this lifestyle is popular among young people and brings them certain benefits, it negatively influences society. The trend of living independently accelerates the demand for housing. The housing shortage will gradually become a severe issue for authorities to handle. From another angle, becoming accustomed to living alone is more likely to form introverted and egoistic characters since those people have no one to communicate with at home when encountering some problems or feeling frustrated. However, only with an extroverted personality and teamwork spirit can people integrate into work and society better and smoothly.

虽然这种生活方式在年轻人中很流行,并给他们带来了某些好处,但它对社会产生了负面影响。独立生活的趋势加速了对住房的需求。住房短缺将逐渐成为当局要处理的一个严重问题。从另一个角度看,习惯于独居的人更容易形成内向和自我的性格,因为这些人在家里遇到一些问题或感到沮丧时没有人可以沟通。然而,人们只有具备外向型人格和团队合作精神,才能更好地、顺利地融入工作和社会

名人宣传

On the one hand, problems obtain more attention with the involvement of famous people thanks to their popularity and influence. Celebrities like globally well-known actors, singers, and sports stars have high kudos and are usually the focus of mass media. Any words they post on social media or any speech they deliver in public places will instantly gain extensive exposure.

一方面,由于名人的知名度和影响力,在他们的参与下,问题会得到更多的关注。全球知名的演员、歌手和体育明星等名人拥有很高的声望,通常是大众媒体的焦点。他们在社交媒体上发表的任何言论或在公共场所发表的任何演讲都会立即获得广泛曝光。

However, the focus may also be diverted by the celebrities' engagement. While watching those superstars on screen, their followers may merely care about their idols' performance rather than the problem or message idols try to solve or convey. Moreover, although the charity activities may gain higher publicity among the citizens, few people take any action to participate afterwards. Celebrities should take the charity campaign more seriously and make their contribution practically.

然而,焦点也可能被名人的参与所转移。当在屏幕上观看这些超级明星时,他们的追随者可能只关心他们偶像的表现,而不是偶像试图解决的问题或传达的信息。此外,尽管慈善活动可能在公民中获得更高的宣传,但很少有人在事后采取任何行动来参与。名人应该更认真地对待慈善活动,并以实际行动做出自己的贡献。

旅游类

太空旅行

The first benefit is the jobs that the industry is going to create. Specifically, with more and more companies taking an interest in space tourism, a high number of employment for researchers, scientists, explorers, pilots, programmers, operators, and many other support staff will be available in the next few years. Also, planes and many other things will be needed in space tourism business.

第一个好处是这个行业将创造的就业机会。具体来说,随着越来越多的公司对太空旅游感兴趣,在未来几年将有大量的研究人员、科学家、探险家、飞行员、程序员、操作员和许多其他支持人员的就业。此外,太空旅游业务将需要飞机和许多其他东西。

Another advantage of space tourism is its ability to renew interest in space and space exploration. With renewed interest, financial backing will follow, supporting further innovation in the industry and space exploration in general.

太空旅游的另一个优势是它能够重新激发人们对太空和太空探索的兴趣。随着兴趣的恢复,财政支持将随之而来,支持该行业的进一步创新和一般的空间探索。

However, every space tour has its inherent risk of catastrophic disasters and losing human lives. So, the companies have to take care of all the safety concerns and make every prudent step to ensure a safe journey to space; with the extremely hostile environment of the space, anything can happen. Moreover, the space industry also creates environmental problems after launching space shuttles, satellites, rockets, and other equipment.

然而,每一次太空之旅都有其固有的风险,即灾难性的灾害和人命的丧失。因此,公司必须照顾到所有的安全问题,并采取每一个谨慎的步骤,以确保太空之旅的安全;由于太空环境极其恶劣,任何事情都可能发生。此外,航天工业在发射航天飞机、卫星、火箭和其他设备后也会产生环境问题。

国际旅行

In addition to this, stereotypes account for the cultural prejudice. This is mainly because many visitors lack a profound and comprehensive understanding of the places before setting off, and facing the backward situation of individual areas and the destructive behaviors of individuals, the tourists may have the tendency to exaggerate them into the stereotype of the whole country, which is extremely difficult to change later as the first impression sets a framework from which people interpret everything else.

除此之外,陈规定型观念也是文化偏见的原因。这主要是因为很多游客在出发前对各地缺乏深刻全面的了解,面对个别地区的落后状况和个人的破坏性行为,游客可能会有把它们夸大成整个国家的刻板印象的倾向,这在以后是极难改变的,因为第一印象奠定了一个框架,人们从这个框架中解释其他一切。

Admittedly, knowledge gained from TV and the Internet features a broader range than traveling. Much information can be available from various sources, from documentaries and other tourism programs produced by professional broadcast companies to travel stories, adventures, and images from avid travelers. What people experience is probably incomplete and partial, sometimes lopsided. Besides, by watching TV and browsing through pages online, people can form a general conception of a country with the least effort in terms of time and expense.

诚然,从电视和互联网上获得的知识的特点是比旅游更广泛。从各种渠道可以获得很多信息,从专业广播公司制作的纪录片和其他旅游节目到狂热旅行者的旅行故事、冒险和图片。人们所经历的可能是不完整和片面的,有时是片面的。此外,通过看电视和在网上浏览网页,人们可以用最少的时间和费用来形成对一个国家的大致概念。

First, historical differences and culture shock are probably the main culprits of misunderstandings and even discrimination. For instance, in some parts of China, eating dogs is allowed and famous, while in Europe, killing or hunting dogs is illegal. This can be seen as a culture shock, and some visitors cannot understand, so sometimes conflicts may occur between the visitors and inhabitants.

首先,历史差异和文化冲击可能是造成误解甚至歧视的主要罪魁祸首。例如,在中国的一些地方,吃狗是被允许的,而且很有名,而在欧洲,杀狗或猎狗是非法的。这可以被看作是一种文化冲击,一些游客无法理解,所以有时游客和居民之间可能会发生冲突。

环境类

If we continue to deplete the earth's natural resources, we will cause serious damage to the environment. Some environmental problems cannot be solved without technological solutions, such as applying renewable resources. Wind power and solar energy have been used worldwide, thereby reducing the demand for fossil fuels. Electric cars and hybrid cars have also been in high demand worldwide, reducing the emission of carbon dioxide.

如果我们继续消耗地球上的自然资源,将对环境造成严重的破坏。一些环境问题的解决离不开技术解决方案,如应用可再生资源。风力发电和太阳能已经在全世界范围内使用,从而减少了对化石燃料的需求。电动汽车和混合动力汽车在世界范围内的需求也很高,减少了二氧化碳的排放。

气候变化

Climate change has already been set in motion, and we are experiencing the effects of climate change. The weather is getting hotter; relentless heat isn't uncommon; diseases are moving, and wildfires and floods are happening more often, causing catastrophic damage and more injuries. Admittedly, cultivating a positive relationship with nature is essential. But more reproaches are useless, the significant challenge right here under our nose is more how to deal with these aftermaths and face reality.

气候变化已经开始了,我们正在经历气候变化的影响。天气越来越热;无情的高温并不罕见;疾病正在移动,野火和洪水更频繁地发生,造成灾难性的破坏和更多的伤害。不可否认,培养与大自然的积极关系是至关重要的。但更多的责备是没有用的,就在我们眼皮底下的重大挑战更多的是如何处理这些后遗症,面对现实。

On the other hand, currently, any program set up to prevent climate change involves cutting carbon emissions. Unfortunately, carbon-capture technology turns out to be demanding and expensive. Because clime change is a genuinely global complex problem, every country’s actions are integral to addressing this issue. However, drawing down carbon emission makes a sacrifice unbearable economic costs. Thus, many countries are reluctant to take risks, especially those focusing on economic growth.

另一方面,目前,为防止气候变化而制定的任何计划都涉及到削减碳排放。不幸的是,碳捕捉技术被证明是苛刻和昂贵的。因为气候变化是一个真正的全球性的复杂问题,每个国家的行动都是解决这个问题的组成部分。然而,减少碳排放需要牺牲难以承受的经济成本。因此,许多国家不愿意承担风险,特别是那些注重经济增长的国家。

城市绿化

First and foremost, the green belt helps ensure a consistent supply of fresh air to urban inhabitants. Via photosynthesis, most green leafy plants help convert the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere into fresh oxygen that the life of humans and many other faunas relies on. Without sufficient plants grown in cities, oxygen cannot be guaranteed, let alone trees' other effects on the town, including filtering some harmful gases or vehicle emissions in the air and adjusting the urban temperature and humidity. Moreover, the scale of the green area is now considered a critical standard to measure a city’s life quality and civilization progress because natural sights attract citizens to organize more outdoor activities that can improve their physical well-being and enhance the family bond.

首先,绿化带有助于确保向城市居民持续供应新鲜空气。通过光合作用,大多数绿叶植物帮助将大气中的二氧化碳转化为人类和许多其他动物的生命所依赖的新鲜氧气。如果没有足够的植物在城市中生长,氧气就无法得到保证,更不用说树木对城市的其他影响,包括过滤空气中的一些有害气体或车辆排放物,以及调整城市的温度和湿度。此外,绿化面积的规模现在被认为是衡量一个城市生活质量和文明进步的重要标准,因为自然景观吸引市民组织更多的户外活动,可以改善他们的身体健康,增强家庭的联系。

On the other hand, there is no denying fact that the accommodation of a continuously growing urban population is still the first imperative. The housing issue can be the basic needs for citizens, which directly determines the life quality and happiness index. It is conceivable that some city-planners chose to construct more high-rise blocks of flats with the sacrifice of some urban green. Meeting citizens' basic physiological and safety needs, such as providing shelter, is unquestionably more straightforward and realistic.

另一方面,不可否认的是,为持续增长的城市人口提供住宿仍然是首要任务。住房问题可以说是市民的基本需求,它直接决定了生活质量和幸福指数。可以想象,一些城市规划者选择在牺牲一些城市绿地的情况下建造更多的高层公寓。满足市民的基本生理和安全需求,如提供住所,无疑是更直接和现实的。

生态旅游

Our livings have long evolved into communities and groups concentrating on artificial surroundings. People get more used to being urbanized without being exposed to the wild lives, plants, or every natural creature. Furthermore, the importance brought by the natural world is not directly linked to people's daily life. Almost the entire human being cares more about profits, which could immediately contribute to their living standards, convenience, or comfortability.

我们的生活早已演变成集中在人工环境中的社区和团体。人们越来越习惯于被城市化,而不去接触野生的生命、植物或每一种自然生物。此外,自然界带来的重要性与人们的日常生活没有直接联系。几乎所有的人都更关心利润,因为这可以立即提高他们的生活水平、便利性或舒适性。

Firstly, eco-tourism is highly welcomed for attracting the public to go to the places without so many human civilizations—no dwellings manifesting the elaboration of architecture or scenery reflecting residential customs—to truly sense the beauty of the natural world. Simultaneously, the mass media should promote natural beauty and its importance because it is more realistic to inject this information via documentaries, reality shows, tv programs, or films.

首先,生态旅游是非常受欢迎的,因为它可以吸引公众去没有那么多人类文明的地方--没有体现建筑精巧的住宅或反映居住习俗的风景--真正感受到自然界的美丽。同时,大众媒体应该宣传自然之美及其重要性,因为通过纪录片、真人秀、电视节目或电影来注入这种信息是比较现实的。

人与动物

To start simple, with a bit of thought and effort, everyone can make efforts to reduce the number of plastic waste by carrying reusable water bottles and storing food in non-disposable containers. It is also effective to use sustainable products because plastic, as is reported, has already caused tens of thousands of deaths of animals and marine creatures who are trapped or entangled. Besides, we can effectively reduce the intensity of human activity on nature, such as overgrazing, poor farming, and strip mining, to prevent the habitat for animals and plants from shrinking.

简单地说,只要稍加思考和努力,每个人都可以通过携带可重复使用的水瓶和用非一次性容器储存食物来努力减少塑料垃圾的数量。使用可持续的产品也是有效的,因为据报道,塑料已经造成成千上万的动物和海洋生物被困住或缠住而死亡。此外,我们可以有效地减少人类活动对自然的影响,如过度放牧、不良耕作和带状采矿,以防止动物和植物的栖息地萎缩。

The world faces a severe threat of deteriorating land and the extinction of rare animals and plants. Aside from emotional reasons, the effort to preserve the diversity of biological life on our planet is necessary. The survival of animals and plants is inextricably bound with the well-being of humans, as the earth is a living ecosystem, a fragile system of interdependence and balance. Although, as many experts claim, reversal is impossible, I still believe that it is imperative to act now before the problem gets more severe.

世界面临着土地恶化和珍稀动物和植物灭绝的严重威胁。除了情感上的原因外,努力保护我们星球上的生物多样性也是必要的。动物和植物的生存与人类的福祉密不可分,因为地球是一个活生生的生态系统,是一个相互依赖和平衡的脆弱系统。尽管正如许多专家所称,逆转是不可能的,但我仍然认为,在问题变得更加严重之前,现在必须采取行动。

From the perspective of the Darwinians, the extinction of some wildlife is the inevitable result of the law of nature, which is the survival of the fittest. They believe that those creatures who do not adapt to the evolving environment cannot avoid the fate of dying out. Therefore, Darwinian logic would conclude that any attempts to constrain this upcoming trend would be in vain.

从达尔文主义的角度来看,一些野生动物的灭绝是自然法则的必然结果,也就是适者生存。他们认为,那些不适应不断变化的环境的生物无法避免消亡的命运。因此,达尔文的逻辑会得出结论,任何试图制约这种即将到来的趋势的努力都是徒劳的。

One factor that brings many animals to the brink of extinction is poaching; the disappearance of the southern China tiger in last century was the result of excessive hunting. Another factor we cannot ignore is encroachment on natural habitat due to relentless urbanization, which puts the wildlife into jeopardy and disrupts the interrelationship of flora and fauna. Furthermore, the past decad

‘。es have witnessed some successful measures, whether the establishment of natural reserves or the development of reproduction technology. One convincing achievement is the preservation of the Panda, an endangered animal whose numbers have increased thanks to these approaches.

导致许多动物濒临灭绝的一个因素是偷猎;上世纪中国南方虎的消失就是过度狩猎的结果。另一个我们不能忽视的因素是无情的城市化对自然栖息地的侵占,这使野生动物处于危险之中,破坏了动植物的相互关系。此外,在过去的几十年里,无论是建立自然保护区还是发展繁殖技术,都见证了一些成功的措施。一个令人信服的成就是对熊猫的保护,这种濒危动物的数量由于这些方法而增加。

动物园

The modern zoo can act as a place to preserve endangered species, a safe house for rescued animals snatched from their habitat by those with malicious intent, and help spread a sense of wonder about the natural world. Most children find days out at the zoo a fantastic experience, where they can get up close to animals large and small from distant places that they may have only seen in picture books or on TV.

现代动物园可以作为一个保护濒危物种的地方,为那些被恶意抢走的动物提供一个安全屋,并帮助传播对自然世界的好奇心。大多数孩子认为在动物园的日子是一种奇妙的体验,在那里他们可以近距离接触来自遥远地方的大小动物,他们可能只在图画书或电视上见过。

Documentaries and nature programs bring animals into our front room in all their glory, in real-time and living in the wild. The reality is not always pretty or cute; zoo animals live in captivity, trapped in a small enclosure for our so-called entertainment and education. But you can't touch the animals, which is deemed too dangerous. You can’t either get that close to most of them, not even by squashing your face against the glass of an enclosure. Zoo animals are often pacing up and down in their cages in boredom or frustration or sitting in a corner, lonely and depressed. A few years ago, some zoos were prescribing Prozac to some animals. Zoos are sad places for animals. An animal lover can’t enjoy seeing magnificent creatures such as tigers or lions behind bars.

纪录片和自然节目将动物带入我们的前厅,让它们实时地生活在野外,展现它们的光彩。现实中的动物并不总是漂亮或可爱的;动物园里的动物都是圈养的,被困在一个小笼子里供我们所谓的娱乐和教育。但你不能触摸动物,这被认为是太危险了。你也不能离它们中的大多数那么近,甚至不能把你的脸挤到围栏的玻璃上。动物园的动物经常在笼子里无聊或沮丧地来回踱步,或者坐在角落里,孤独而沮丧。几年前,一些动物园给一些动物开了百忧解。动物园对动物来说是个悲伤的地方。一个动物爱好者不可能喜欢看到老虎或狮子等宏伟的生物被关在铁笼里。

Water is necessary for the sustenance of all living creatures. It is the world’s most precious resource, fueling everything from the food we eat to the energy we depend upon every day. And freshwater habitats—such as lakes, rivers, streams, and wetlands—boast significant importance to the world's biodiversity. Yet water is not a limitless resource, remarkably fresh potable water. Therefore, the notion that people are free to use water lavishly is selfish and shortsighted. If we continue to deplete this resource, this vital supply may be exhausted.

水是所有生物生存的必需品。它是世界上最宝贵的资源,从我们吃的食物到我们每天依赖的能源,都是水的燃料。淡水栖息地--如湖泊、河流、溪流和湿地--对世界的生物多样性具有重要意义。然而,水并不是一种无限的资源,特别是新鲜的饮用水。因此,人们可以自由使用水的概念是自私和短视的。如果我们继续耗费这种资源,这种重要的供应可能会被耗尽。

Freshwater resources show a qualitative and quantitative deterioration through time resulting from overexploitation for agricultural and industrial purposes, climatic constraints, and multiplication of the diffuse sources of pollution.

由于农业和工业的过度开发,气候的限制,以及污染源的扩大,淡水资源随着时间的推移出现了质和量的恶化。

未开发地区

Human beings have excavated and exhausted much of the planet's fossil fuels and natural gases. By the turn of the century, the pressure of running out of energy resources has forced people to seek resources in remote or untouched regions.

人类已经挖掘并耗尽了地球上大部分的化石燃料和自然气体。到了世纪之交,能源资源枯竭的压力迫使人们在偏远或未开发的地区寻找资源。

Admittedly, most moving vehicles and heating household systems are still running on oils and gases. The overall demand for such resources is still increasing exponentially. Therefore, energy companies must find a solution to resolve this colossal demand. By searching and drilling for fossil fuels in more remote or even uncivilized areas, people can access a much more significant amount of energy resources.

不可否认的是,大多数移动的车辆和取暖的家庭系统仍在依靠石油和气体运行。对这种资源的总体需求仍在成倍增加。因此,能源公司必须找到一个解决方案来解决这一巨大的需求。通过在更偏远甚至未开化的地区寻找和钻探化石燃料,人们可以获得更大量的能源资源。

However, such actions often carries numerous negative consequences. First of all, searching for energy in remote areas will increase the energy required for transportation often referred to as carbon emission, this will give rise to even greater energy demand and is a highly unsustainable way of development.

然而,这种行动往往会带来许多负面的后果。首先,在偏远地区寻找能源将增加运输所需的能源,这通常被称为碳排放,这将引起更大的能源需求,是一种非常不可持续的发展方式。

Furthermore, the activities such as drilling into the ocean floor may lead to catastrophic damage to the oceanic ecosystem. There have already been numerous accounts of oil and gas leakage from deep ocean platforms, which results in disastrous impacts on the local faunas. Furthermore, unpredictable consequences may cause damaging effects on the already degrading climate and planet conditions.

此外,钻探海底等活动可能导致对海洋生态系统的灾难性破坏。已经有很多关于深海平台的石油和天然气泄漏的报道,这对当地动物造成了灾难性的影响。此外,不可预测的后果可能对已经退化的气候和地球条件造成破坏性影响。

For instance, the South Pole provides an ideal geographical position where scientists can observe the atmosphere closely. In this way, not only can we obtain more comprehensive information about our resources, but we would also become more capable of finding out other measures to protect the whole planet.

例如,南极提供了一个理想的地理位置,科学家可以密切观察大气层。通过这种方式,我们不仅可以获得有关资源的更全面的信息,而且我们也会变得更有能力找出保护整个地球的其他措施。

Furthermore, visiting isolated areas may, to some extent, boost cultural communication. People living in the South Pole, deserts, or small islands lead different lives than those living in the fast-paced modern society, and they have various attitudes towards life. With the bloom of homestay hotels like Airbnb, tourists can immerse in completely novel surroundings, experience the local habits, and even have memorable chats with their hosts.

此外,访问偏僻地区在某种程度上可能会促进文化交流。生活在南极、沙漠或小岛上的人与生活在快节奏的现代社会的人过着不同的生活,他们有着不同的生活态度。随着Airbnb等家庭旅馆的盛行,游客可以沉浸在完全新奇的环境中,体验当地的生活习惯,甚至与主人进行难忘的聊天。

旅游业的影响

Advocators see this as an employment opportunity and a means of producing immediate benefits; as one of the largest segments of the tertiary industry, tourism activates a chain of economic measures including the value-added capital investment, employment, and tax contributions. There are also people holding that its economic impact may be uncertain and the tours are constantly interrupting the daily life of local people.

倡导者认为这是一个就业机会和产生直接利益的手段;作为第三产业的最大部分之一,旅游业激活了一连串的经济措施,包括增值的资本投资、就业和税收贡献。也有人认为,它的经济影响可能是不确定的,旅游团不断干扰着当地人的日常生活。

However, some people are consistently worrying about the ecological damage due to a wide range of tourism activities. Once the regions, especially those fragile ones, are reconstructed into tourist resorts, conflicts emerge between the natural resources and the invasion of modern facilities: forests may have to give way to the construction of mountain hotels; rivers may be forced to reroute for the water communication. It is unclear how to mitigate the effects of tourism on the area.

然而,有些人一直担心由于广泛的旅游活动而造成的生态破坏。一旦这些地区,特别是那些脆弱的地区,被重建为旅游胜地,自然资源和现代设施的入侵之间就会出现冲突:森林可能不得不让位给山地酒店的建设;河流可能被迫改道以进行水路沟通。还不清楚如何缓解旅游业对这个地区的影响。

消费品的影响

Rising consumer sales have the effect of spurring the economy to faster growth.

消费的增长有刺激经济加速发展的作用。

During manufacturing, raw materials, and energy, many of which are not renewable or regenerated, are extracted brutally from nature and produced in a very polluting way. For instance, in the elaboration process of raw materials, harmful chemical substances are introduced, and fossil fuels are burned to facilitate production, causing toxic by-products. Besides, the production growth comes with many wasted products, which are probably just dumped into the rivers and oceans and harm the ecosystem and creatures that live in the sea. For example, the lives of thousands of birds are in jeopardy as a result of the oil spill.

在制造过程中,原材料和能源,其中许多是不可再生或再生的,被粗暴地从大自然中提取,并以非常污染的方式生产。例如,在原材料的制作过程中,引入了有害的化学物质,燃烧化石燃料以促进生产,造成有毒的副产品。此外,生产的增长伴随着许多浪费的产品,这些产品可能被倾倒在河流和海洋中,损害生态系统和生活在海洋中的生物。例如,石油泄漏使成千上万只鸟的生命受到威胁。

交通类

自行车

Most cities are facing severe traffic congestion. Driving at rush hour, especially in busy metropolitan areas, can be very frustrating as drivers deal with stop-and-go traffic. By contrast, biking paths and sidewalks have less congestion. Biking enables travelers not only to burn calories and strengthen the muscles in the legs, but also lower blood pressure and risk of cancer, diabetes, and other diseases over time.

大多数城市正面临着严重的交通拥堵。在高峰期开车,特别是在繁忙的大都市,司机要应付走走停停的交通,会让人非常沮丧。相比之下,自行车道和人行道的拥堵情况较少。骑自行车使旅行者不仅可以燃烧卡路里,加强腿部肌肉,而且随着时间的推移,还可以降低血压和患癌症、糖尿病和其他疾病的风险。

First of all, the efficiency of cycling is much lower compared with other fuel or electricity-powered vehicles. In other words, bikes are operated by human beings themselves, which is more physically demanding, but the speed of this is not satisfactory. Therefore, for the city commuters, especially those living in the metropolitan ones and having to travel long distances to work daily, cycling can hardly be seen as an optimal choice compared with other transportation methods.

首先,与其他燃料或电力驱动的车辆相比,骑自行车的效率要低很多。换句话说,自行车是由人自己操作的,这对人的体力要求更高,但其速度也不理想。因此,对于城市上班族来说,特别是那些生活在大都市,每天必须长途跋涉去上班的人来说,与其他交通方式相比,骑自行车很难被看作是一个最佳选择。

Apart from the low efficiency, the poor riding experience cannot be ignored. In most countries of the world, the weather is not that stabilized all year round. Except for the extreme weather such as storms or torrential rain, the daily temperature also brings people challenges while riding, especially during winter and summer.

除了效率低之外,骑行体验差也是不容忽视的问题。在世界大多数国家,天气并不是全年都那么稳定的。除了风暴或暴雨等极端天气,每天的温度也给人们的骑行带来挑战,特别是在冬季和夏季。

The introduction of bike-sharing can contribute to the rescue of cycling, which effectively solves the ’last mile‘ problem. For example, In China, people can simply use their intelligent mobiles to unlock the bike, utilizing them where it is unreachable by the public systems and initially has to be arrived by walking.

共享单车的引入有助于拯救自行车运动,有效地解决了 "最后一公里 "的问题。例如,在中国,人们可以简单地使用他们的智能手机来解锁自行车,在公共系统无法到达的地方利用它们,最初必须通过步行到达。

私家车

From an individual perspective, the trend of life-on-wheels can be seen as positive for both comfortable and convenient reasons. Firstly, it is not difficult to imagine the comfort of driving to work in comparison with the feeling of being sandwiched in the packed subway during rush hours. Also, for some travelers who need to commute between cities frequently, driving by themselves is sometimes a relatively more affordable and convenient alternative to air flights. Traveling by plane is more expensive and irritating, not to mention the cumbersome security procedures at airports and commonplace delays.

从个人的角度来看,由于舒适和便利的原因,驾车生活的趋势可以被看作是积极的。首先,不难想象,与高峰期被夹在拥挤的地铁中的感觉相比,开车上班的舒适感。另外,对于一些需要经常在城市间通勤的旅行者来说,自己开车有时是相对于飞机航班更实惠和方便的选择。乘坐飞机旅行更昂贵,更令人恼火,更不用说机场繁琐的安全程序和司空见惯的延误。

堵车

The scene that the roads are clogged with traffic isn't uncommon. Mostly, traffic congestion happens in city centers when traffic demand exceeds the available road capacity. From the demand side, over the last few decades, cars and other private vehicles have spiked across the world, resulting from fast economic growth and improved living standards that come with it. On the other hand, from the supply side, road and expressway capacity in city centers can’t be easily expanded due to limited land spaces there. To make things worse, statistics show that increasing road capacity reduces the cost of travel and thus induces additional traffic demand.

道路被交通堵塞的场景并不罕见。大多数情况下,交通拥堵发生在城市中心,当交通需求超过了可用的道路容量。从需求方面来看,在过去的几十年里,由于快速的经济增长和随之而来的生活水平的提高,汽车和其他私人车辆在世界各地激增。另一方面,从供应方面来看,由于城市中心的土地空间有限,道路和高速公路的容量不容易扩大。更糟糕的是,统计数据显示,增加道路容量会降低旅行成本,从而诱发额外的交通需求。

Maybe in the short run, they should consider ways to reduce cars on the road like imposing congestion taxes, charging higher parking fees or raising petrol prices so that the cost of car trips far outnumbers that of other transportation options. In this case, more car owners might quit unnecessary driving and begin to take mass transit.

也许在短期内,他们应该考虑如何减少道路上的汽车,如征收拥堵税,收取更高的停车费,或提高汽油价格,使汽车旅行的成本远远超过其他交通方式的价格。在这种情况下,更多的车主可能会放弃不必要的驾驶,开始乘坐大众交通。

In addition, by utilizing the congestion tax, governments can also invest in improving the public transport infrastructure by revenue, providing better service, and attracting more people to choose public transport.

此外,通过利用拥堵税,政府还可以通过收入投资改善公共交通基础设施,提供更好的服务,吸引更多的人选择公共交通。

There seems to be temporary relief of the urban problems in just the scheduled days rather than an effective cure to benefit the public. Instead, the vehicle-free day discourages the citizens’ inclination to favor the public transportation system by lowering the amenity and working efficiency. It can be conceived that commuters frequently get stuck and squashed in the city transport, not to mention the vehicle-free day when a different flock of passengers rush onto the buses. On the other hand, when private vehicles are prohibited in the centers, those with limited mobility, like the disabled, have to waste ages for taxis to transfer them between the urban and the outskirt. Such an uncomfortable and inefficient experience with the public transportation system disappoints both the bus takers and private car drivers.

在预定的日子里,城市问题似乎得到了暂时的缓解,而不是一个有效的治疗方法,使公众受益。相反,无车日降低了公共交通系统的舒适度和工作效率,从而打击了市民对公共交通系统的兴趣。可以想象,通勤者在城市交通中经常被卡住和挤压,更不用说在无车日时有不同的乘客涌入巴士。另一方面,当中心地区禁止私人车辆进入时,那些行动不便的人,如残疾人,不得不浪费很多时间来乘坐出租车在市区和郊区之间转车。这种不舒服和低效的公共交通系统体验,让公交车乘客和私家车司机都很失望。

交通事故

Therefore, regulations are more suggested in bettering the training part during the driving license tests to ensure that newly qualified drivers would be more skillful in dealing with complex traffic situations. A more extended actual road driving practice could be involved in the probation of drivers to make sure that they won’t panic or mishandle the vehicles in some ordinary circumstances; supervisions like cameras or cable televisions are recommended on roads to ensure they are not playing mobile phones during the driving.

因此,我们建议在驾驶执照考试中加强培训,以确保新的合格司机能够更熟练地处理复杂的交通情况。在对司机的考察中,可以进行更多的实际道路驾驶练习,以确保他们在一些普通情况下不会惊慌失措或误操作车辆;建议在道路上设置摄像头或有线电视的监督,以确保他们在驾驶过程中不玩手机。

There are unavoidable accidents that occur not only because of traffic violations but the poor road and climate conditions. A more effective strategy by the government would be to straighten accident-prone curves and widen narrow roads. A more significant number of road signs and proper traffic signals can also effectively reduce accidents on roads. Moreover, speed cameras can remind drivers not to commit any mistakes or break the rules. Recently, the way has been applied in many areas and already brings positive results as decreasing the number of people going beyond standard speed.

有一些不可避免的事故发生,不仅是因为交通违规,而且是因为道路和气候条件差。政府更有效的策略是拉直容易发生事故的弯道,拓宽狭窄的道路。更多数量的道路标志和适当的交通信号也能有效减少道路上的事故。此外,测速仪可以提醒司机不要犯任何错误或违反规则。最近,这种方式已经在许多地区得到应用,并且已经带来了积极的结果,因为减少了超过标准速度的人数。

城市规划类

城市分块

Traditionally, a local community would locate in a large area, where various institutions would be concentrated: shops, restaurants, community groups, religious organizations, and community leaders. A robust and close-knit sense of collective responsibility would be formed within these communities and establish a sense of shared values. This was commonly referred to as community spirit: an essential feature of community management.

传统上,一个地方社区会坐落在一个大的区域,那里集中了各种机构:商店、餐馆、社区团体、宗教组织和社区领导人。在这些社区内会形成一种强大而紧密的集体责任感,并建立一种共同的价值观。这通常被称为社区精神:社区管理的一个基本特征。

However, in the modern world, high-rise buildings and shopping malls are located away from residential areas. Shopping malls located on the outskirts of residential areas cannot cultivate the same sense of community spirit as shops situated in residential areas. Shopkeepers and customers all have a sense of responsibility to look after their local area. Factors such as this have created a situation whereby traditional community spirit has vanished, and fewer people care about the area in which they live.

然而,在现代社会中,高层建筑和购物中心都远离住宅区。位于居民区郊区的购物中心不能像位于居民区的商店那样培养社区精神。店主和顾客都有一种责任感,要照顾好他们所在的地区。诸如此类的因素造成了这样一种局面:传统的社区精神已经消失,越来越少的人关心他们所居住的地区。

Granted, this policy of moving factories and employees to the countryside can alleviate urban problems in a short period. Idle land resources can be used for apartment buildings and public road systems, which in a short time relieves heavy traffic jams and lowers the estate price. However, with time passing, the problems would become severe again. The more employees move out of the city, the more new immigrants swarm into the city. The increasing population in cities gives rise to various problems, and traffic and housing problems cannot be solved thoroughly.

诚然,这种将工厂和员工迁往农村的政策可以在短期内缓解城市问题。闲置的土地资源可以用来建造公寓楼和公共道路系统,在短时间内缓解严重的交通拥堵,降低房地产价格。然而,随着时间的推移,问题会再次变得严重。更多的移民涌入城市,城市人口的增加引起了各种问题,交通和住房问题无法得到彻底解决。

城市规划

More shopping centers bring increasing convenience, which provides a wider variety of commodities and saves people much time searching for different products. This is particularly important to those busy working adults in a fast-paced modern life. Apart from urban dwellers, shopping centers are usually reckoned as a tourism attraction for travelers.

更多的购物中心带来了越来越多的便利,它提供了更多种类的商品,为人们节省了很多寻找不同产品的时间。这对那些在快节奏的现代生活中忙碌的上班族来说尤其重要。除了城市居民之外,购物中心通常被认为是旅游者的一个旅游景点。

Public park is suitable for people of all ages and various interests to spend leisure time, from jogging to fishing, camping to painting. It provides a precious opportunity for each living in concrete jungles to relieve themselves in nature and a haven from the noise and bustle of the city. which is beneficial to their mental health. Also, more sports facilities will make it easy for people to do more exercise, which increases the physical fitness of the public.

公共公园适合各种年龄和各种兴趣的人度过休闲时光,从慢跑到钓鱼,从露营到绘画。它为每个生活在混凝土丛林中的人提供了一个宝贵的机会,让他们在大自然中解脱,成为远离城市喧嚣的避风港。这对他们的心理健康是有益的。同时,更多的体育设施将使人们很容易做更多的运动,这增加了公众的身体素质。

Large squares and parks have been established to host lectures, ceremonies, and even carnivals. Therefore, it is of high necessity for a city to possess prestigious squares or parks, which have increasingly become a city landmarks. For example, Central Park in New York and Red Square in Moscow represent the city's character and history, and they have become one of the most significant components of the town.

大型广场和公园的建立是为了举办讲座、仪式,甚至是嘉年华会。因此,一个城市拥有著名的广场或公园是非常必要的,它们已日益成为一个城市的地标。例如,纽约的中央公园和莫斯科的红场代表了城市的特色和历史,它们已经成为城市最重要的组成部分之一。

自己设计房子

On the one hand, entitling people to freedom in house design is favorable to a certain extent. As home is a very personal space, being able to design it to our liking can be immensely enjoyable. If homeowners are deprived of this freedom, they would feel uncomfortable and frustrated with their property, which may adversely affect other aspects of their life. On the city level, having variations in house design could help the community and even the city look more vibrant. Paris perfectly exemplifies this principle. This city is hailed as one of the most unique in the world as far as architectural style is concerned, which can be attributed to the fact that the houses here do not conform to a fixed aesthetic.

一方面,让人们享有房屋设计的自由在某种程度上是有利的。由于家是一个非常个人化的空间,能够按照我们的喜好来设计它是非常令人愉快的。如果房主被剥夺了这种自由,他们会对自己的财产感到不舒服和沮丧,这可能会对他们生活的其他方面产生不利影响。在城市层面,房屋设计有变化可以帮助社区甚至城市看起来更有活力。巴黎完美地体现了这一原则。就建筑风格而言,这个城市被誉为世界上最独特的城市之一,这可以归因于一个事实,即这里的房子不符合固定的审美。

First, there is the matter of safety. The lack of control on how houses should be constructed could put the inhabitants' lives in jeopardy. Second, aesthetically speaking, if homeowners are too adventurous, the building will look out of place with other structures in the same area. Houses in bad taste could seriously spoil the beauty of the city.

首先,是安全问题。对房屋的建造方式缺乏控制,可能会使居民的生命受到威胁。其次,从审美角度讲,如果房主过于冒险,建筑会与同一地区的其他建筑显得格格不入。品味不佳的房屋会严重破坏城市的美感。

老房子

The most frequently mentioned problem about historic buildings is their livability. The utility of facilities in century-old housing is obsolete by today’s standards, whether electric and plumbing systems, underfloor drainage design, or anti-fire building materials, not to mention the apprehension about their building materials in terms of environmental protection and energy-saving. Some might argue that refurbishment could address these problems; however, this requires enormous capital.

关于历史建筑,最常提到的问题是其宜居性。百年老屋的设施的实用性以今天的标准来看已经过时了,无论是电气和管道系统,地板下的排水设计,还是抗火建筑材料,更不用说在环保和节能方面对其建筑材料的忧虑。有些人可能认为,翻新可以解决这些问题;然而,这需要巨大的资金。

However, when properly evaluated, the dilemma of renovating or demolishing historical constructions will be tackled. For those dwellings without cultural values, the authority should take steps to replace them with new housing designed to meet current safety codes. On the other hand, the administration can relocate their residents and rehabilitate these buildings for tourism purposes for those with cultural or architectural meaning. By doing so, the apprehension about livability be mitigated, and the cost of maintenance can be offset by revenue from ticket sales.

然而,在进行适当的评估后,翻新或拆除历史建筑的难题将得到解决。对于那些没有文化价值的住宅,当局应该采取措施,用符合当前安全规范的新住房来取代它们。另一方面,政府可以重新安置居民,并对那些具有文化或建筑意义的建筑进行修复,以达到旅游目的。通过这样做,可以减轻人们对宜居性的担忧,而且维修费用可以由门票销售收入来抵消。

文化类

电视节目

Initially, the massive presence of Western cultural goods throughout the world makes a case for inevitable cultural homogenization. Developments in global communications have made exchanging goods and ideas near-instantaneous and unimaginably easy. From the inescapable presence of Mcdonald's and Hollywood movie posters to the Western clothing brands with social prestige, the limitless evidence of Western cultural commodity domination makes cultural globalization a persuasive one. Critics of this view note how it reduces culture to its material goods. It makes a leap of inference from the simple presence of cultural goods to the attribution of more profound cultural effects.

起初,西方文化产品在世界各地的大量存在为文化同质化提供了理由。全球通信的发展使商品和思想的交流近乎瞬息万变,而且难以想象的容易。从麦当劳和好莱坞电影海报的不可避免的存在,到具有社会声望的西方服装品牌,西方文化商品统治的无限证据使文化全球化具有说服力。这种观点的批评者指出,它如何将文化还原为其物质产品。它从简单的文化商品的存在到更深刻的文化效果的归属进行了跳跃式的推论。

Foreign TV programs, such as soap operas and cartoons, enrich local entertainment culture due to different content styles. Some channels broadcast distinctive programs which consist of different customs and activities for the audience with their preference to choose.

外国电视节目,如肥皂剧和动画片,由于内容风格不同,丰富了本地娱乐文化。有些频道播放的节目很有特色,包括不同的风俗和活动,供观众选择,有自己的偏好。

明星

Some celebrities have a certain amount of kudos attached and set a shining example, especially top athletes with valuable qualities including persistence and diligence, encoring and inspiring their fans to follow them to spare no effort in pursuing their dreams, which is a kind of positive spiritual belief to some extent.

一些名人有一定的光环,树立了光辉的榜样,尤其是顶级运动员,他们具有坚持和勤奋等可贵的品质,鼓励和激励着他们的粉丝跟随他们不遗余力地追求自己的梦想,这在一定程度上是一种积极的精神信仰。

The young could be immature and impulsive, so they are likely to imitate all the actions of their idols, irrespective of whether these actions are beneficial or not, ranging from a materialistic and individualistic lifestyle to more incendiary behaviors such as racism and discrimination. These outcomes are harmful not only for young people themselves but also for society in the long term.

年轻人可能不成熟,容易冲动,所以他们很可能模仿他们偶像的所有行为,不管这些行为是否有益,从物质主义和个人主义的生活方式到更多的煽动性行为,如种族主义和歧视。这些结果不仅对年轻人本身有害,而且从长远来看对社会也有害。


Humble Halten